Bio fertilizer is a biological microorganism-containing substance that colonizes the rhizosphere or the interior of the plant when applied to seeds, plant surfaces, or soil. They can help the host plant grow by increasing the supply or availability of primary nutrients.
What is Biological fertilizer?
Since agriculture is the backbone of the Indian economy, biological fertilizer is very important. As you know, monsoon drives the majority of agricultural activities in India, but farmers can benefit from using a suitable bio-fertilizer by increasing soil fertility and yielding a large crop.
With the help of natural processes, bio fertilizers supply nutrients to plants such as phosphorus solubilization, nitrogen fixation, and the creation of growth-promoting chemicals. Bio fertilizer is a chemical that contains microorganisms when added to the soil, increasing its fertility and promoting plant growth.
Bio fertilizers can be categorized in many ways based on their nature and functions. Below in this article, we will discuss different types of bio fertilizers.
Types of Bio fertilizers
1: Blue-green algae
Because of their abundance in a rice field, blue-green algae are known as rice animals. Many Tolypothrix, Nostic, Schizothrix, and Plectonema species can be found in tropical environments. The majority of nitrogen-fixing BGA is filamentous, consisting of a chain of vegetative cells interspersed with specialized cells called heterocyst that act as a micro nodule for synthesis and N-fixing machinery.
Nowadays, it is easily available in the market for farmers to buy and use many bio fertilizers.
2: Free-Living Nitrogen-fixing Bacteria
Soil contains free-living bacteria that perform nitrogen fixation. Clostridium, azotobacter, and bacillus polymyxin are examples. They are nitrogen-fixing bacteria that live in naturally occurring soil. Clostridium beijerinckii is a saprotrophic anaerobe.
The most commonly used bio fertilizers are Rhizobium and Azospirillum. These bacteria are free living in the soil used with crops like cotton, wheat, maize, etc.
3: Phosphate Solubilizing Bacteria
Phosphate solubilizing bacteria can separate inorganic phosphate from insoluble components. PSB is widely used as a bio fertilizer to promote plant growth and nutrient utilization. Soil microbes are important in regulating the dynamics of organic matter decomposition and the availability of plant nutrients such as nitrogen, potassium, phosphorus, and other nutrients.
This also helps to stimulate rapid root growth for water and nutrient absorption. They also help to increase disease resistance and drought tolerance in plants due to rapid cell growth.
4: Compost Bio fertilizers
Composed bio fertilizers use animal dung to enrich the soil with beneficial microorganisms and nutrients. To convert animal waste into bio fertilizers, microorganisms such as abcteria go through biological processes that aid in the breakdown of the waste.
Fertilizers can be composed using cellulytic fungal cultures and acetobacter cultures. Vermi compost is a 100% pure eco-friendly organic fertilizer that has organic carbon, sulphur, hormones, enzymes, vitamins, and antibiotics that improve the quality and quantity of yield.
Bio fertilizers are various preparations made from naturally beneficial microorganisms. They are harmless to all plants, animals, and humans. They are not only environmentally friendly, but also help to save chemical inputs because they are beneficial to crops and natural nutrient cycles.
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